People who have an eating disorder are identified as a priority population for suicide prevention in Australia.
Eating disorders are characterised by disturbed/disordered eating patterns or altered eating-related behaviours resulting in a change to an individual’s consumption of food to a degree that is harmful to their health and wellbeing. Eating disorders are serious and complex mental illnesses; they are not a lifestyle choice or a diet gone ‘too far'. People living with an eating disorder have significantly higher levels of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and alcohol and substance-use problems.
Eating disorders can occur in men and women of all age ranges, socioeconomic status and cultural background. About one in 20 Australians have an eating disorder and rate of eating disorders are increasing. Approximately 15% of Australian women experiencing an eating disorder during their lifetime.1
The causes of suicide are complex and multifaceted. It is important to acknowledge that a person with an eating disorder may never experience suicidal behaviours or thoughts. The presence of protective factors may reduce the risk of suicide.
What we know about suicide amongst people living with an eating disorder
Eating disorders are a serious and potentially debilitating mental illness that place an individual at an increased risk of suicide. Rates of suicide and suicide attempts are high among people that experience an eating disorder.
It is important to remember that while eating disorders are linked to increased risk of suicide, not all of those who experience an eating disorder will have suicidal thoughts or make attempts on their life.
Suicide prevention for those living with an eating disorder is highly dependent on early and appropriate treatment and support. Protective factors include:
- early intervention: seeking help as early as possible greatly reduces the severity, duration and impact of an eating disorder
- individualised treatment: due to the complex nature of an eating disorder, there are many different treatments available and each may involve a variety of health professionals. Clinicians and health professionals work with individuals to determine the best treatment approach. In most cases, they will ensure that all treatments are fully suited to the mental, physical, emotional, behavioural and environmental needs of the person with the eating disorder.
- ongoing support: the treatment should also recognise and address the different phases of the illness, the specific symptoms you have, and provide ongoing support to reduce the risk of relapse.
Risk factors for suicide amongst people living with an eating disorder include:
- severity and duration of illness
- substance abuse
- excessive exercise
- impulsive behaviour.
It is important that the diversity of people living with an eating disorder be recognised. Consideration should also be given to other identity-driven needs and roles a person living with an eating disorder may have, which may overlap with other communities, including:
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
- culturally and linguistically diverse people
- LGBTI people
- people with disabilities
- people living in rural, regional and remote locations
- children and young people
- older people.
National Eating Disorders Collaboration. (2016). What is an eating disorder? Retrieved 19 March 2018, from http://www.nedc.com.au/eating-....